Rabobank closes transactions with de-risking by AGRI3 Fund
December 23, 2020
Small Holders and Partnership
December 27, 2020
Show all

Source >>>


Edi Purwanto 1,*,

Hery Santoso 2,

Idsert Jelsma 1,

Atiek Widayati 1,

Hunggul Y. S. H. Nugroho 3 and

Meine van Noordwijk 4,5

1Tropenbos Indonesia, Bogor 16163, Indonesia2Java Learning Centre (JAVLEC), Klidon, Yogyakarta 55581, Indonesia3Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Makassar 90243, Indonesia4World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16155, Indonesia5Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.Land20209(12), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531 

Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020(This article belongs to the Special Issue 

Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)

View Full-Text

Download PDF

Browse Figures

Review Reports

Cite This Paper


With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis and policy change. While spatial details of FZ-OP remain contested, we review literature on (1) the legal basis of the forest zone and its conversion, (2) social stratification in oil palm production (large-scale, plasma and independent growers), and (3) environmental consequences of forest conversion to FZ-OP, before discussing policy options in a range of social and ecological contexts. Policy options range from full regularization (as FZ-OP stands could meet international forest definitions), to conditional acceptance of diversified smallholder plantings in ‘agroforestry concessions’, to gradually phasing out FZ-OP and eviction/destruction. A nuanced and differentiated approach to FZ-OP is needed, as certification of legality along supply chains is vulnerable to illegal levies and corruption. Corporate actors trading internationally can avoid use of uncertified raw materials, effectively shifting blame and depressing farmgate prices for domestic-market palm oil, but this will not return forest conditions or stop further forest conversion. We discuss an agenda for follow-up policy research. View Full-TextKeywords: certificationdeforestationpalm oilforest classificationJambilegalityindependent smallholdersagroforestry concessionsSumatraWest Kalimantan▼ Show Figures

Figure 1