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International Tropical Timber Organization

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ITTO defines sustainable forest management (SFM) as “the process of managing forest to achieve one or more clearly specified objectives of management with regard to the production of a continuous flow of desired forest products and services without undue reduction of its inherent values and future productivity and without undue undesirable effects on the physical and social environment”.
This definition implies the following objectives of SFM:

  • Continuously satisfying needs for goods and environmental services from forests
  • Ensuring the conservation of forest soils, water and carbon stocks
  • Conserving biodiversity
  • Maintaining the resilience and renewal capacity of forests, including for carbon storage
  • Supporting the food-security, cultural and livelihood needs of forest-dependent communities
  • Ensuring the equitable sharing of responsibilities in forest management and of the benefits arising from forest use.
  • ITTO mendefinisikan pengelolaan hutan lestari (SFM) sebagai “proses pengelolaan hutan untuk mencapai satu atau lebih tujuan pengelolaan yang ditentukan dengan jelas sehubungan dengan produksi aliran berkelanjutan dari produk dan jasa hutan yang diinginkan tanpa pengurangan yang tidak semestinya dari nilai-nilai yang melekat dan produktivitas masa depan. dan tanpa efek yang tidak diinginkan yang tidak semestinya pada lingkungan fisik dan sosial”.
  • Memenuhi kebutuhan barang dan jasa lingkungan secara terus menerus dari hutan;
  • Memastikan konservasi tanah hutan, air dan stok karbon;
  • Melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati;
  • Menjaga ketahanan dan kapasitas pembaruan hutan, termasuk untuk penyimpanan karbon;
  • Mendukung kebutuhan ketahanan pangan, budaya dan mata pencaharian masyarakat yang bergantung pada hutan;
  • Memastikan pembagian tanggung jawab yang adil dalam pengelolaan hutan dan manfaat yang timbul dari pemanfaatan hutan.

From The Forest Principles to UNFF – No Consensus for a Single Legally Binding Instrument  

There is currently no comprehensive legally binding instrument on forests. International negotiations explicitly aimed at a global forest convention were initiated in 1990, proposed and endorsed by the G-7, the group of seven major industrialized states. At that time it was thought that it would be feasible to conclude a forest convention in 1992, when the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) would be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. But during the negotiations in Rio it became apparent that the international community was far from reaching consensus on the contents of a forest convention. There was even disagreement about whether such a convention should be negotiated at all. Instead, the juridically lame “Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests” (Forest Principles) was adopted. Since a statement is, by its nature, non-legally binding, the title’s inclusion of these words shows that this non-binding aspect needed extra emphasis, demonstrating the great divergence of views during the UNCED negotiations. The designation that it was nevertheless “authoritative” could do little to endow it with the weight of a binding agreement.

Saat ini tidak ada instrumen yang mengikat secara hukum yang komprehensif tentang hutan. Negosiasi internasional eksplisit pada konvensi hutan global dimulai pada tahun 1990, diusulkan dan didukung oleh G-7, kelompok tujuh negara industri utama. Pada saat itu diperkirakan akan layak untuk menyimpulkan konvensi hutan pada tahun 1992, ketika Konferensi PBB tentang Lingkungan dan Pembangunan (UNCED) akan diadakan di Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Namun selama negosiasi di Rio menjadi jelas bahwa masyarakat internasional masih jauh dari mencapai konsensus tentang isi konvensi kehutanan. Bahkan ada ketidaksepakatan tentang apakah konvensi semacam itu harus dinegosiasikan sama sekali. Sebaliknya, “Pernyataan Prinsip-Prinsip Resmi yang Tidak Mengikat Secara Hukum untuk Konsensus Global tentang Pengelolaan, Konservasi, dan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan dari semua Jenis Hutan” (Prinsip-prinsip Hutan) yang lemah secara yuridis diadopsi. Karena sebuah pernyataan, pada dasarnya, tidak mengikat secara hukum, pencantuman kata-kata ini pada judul menunjukkan bahwa aspek yang tidak mengikat ini membutuhkan penekanan ekstra, menunjukkan perbedaan pandangan yang besar selama negosiasi UNCED. Penunjukan bahwa itu tetap “berwenang” tidak bisa berbuat banyak untuk memberinya bobot perjanjian yang mengikat.

Role of Forests in Existing Conventions  

The potentially most important global conventions related to forests are the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (UNCCD). These three conventions, together with seven other multilateral agreements (see Table 1), are discussed below, in particular with regard to their contents relevant to forests. Although all have forestry relevance (and can thus be considered “tree treaties”), they all have in common the trait of taking into account only certain aspects, functions, and roles of forests.

Konvensi global yang berpotensi paling penting terkait dengan hutan adalah Konvensi Kerangka Kerja PBB tentang Perubahan Iklim (UNFCCC), Konvensi Keanekaragaman Hayati (CBD), dan Konvensi PBB untuk Memerangi Desertifikasi di Negara-Negara yang Mengalami Kekeringan Serius dan/atau Desertifikasi, khususnya di Afrika (UNCCD). Ketiga konvensi ini, bersama dengan tujuh kesepakatan multilateral lainnya (lihat Tabel 1), dibahas di bawah ini, khususnya terkait dengan isinya yang relevan dengan hutan. Meskipun semua memiliki relevansi kehutanan (dan dengan demikian dapat dianggap “perjanjian pohon”), mereka semua memiliki kesamaan sifat yang hanya mempertimbangkan aspek, fungsi dan peran tertentu dari hutan.

Besides the global instruments cited here, there are many more agreements aimed at environmental conservation, including habitat protection and protection of particular species of fauna and flora, in particular at the regional level. These, however, fall outside the scope of this article.

Selain instrumen global yang disebutkan di sini, masih banyak lagi kesepakatan yang ditujukan untuk konservasi lingkungan, termasuk perlindungan habitat dan perlindungan spesies fauna dan flora tertentu, khususnya di tingkat regional. Ini, bagaimanapun, berada di luar cakupan artikel ini.

TABLE 1. Relevant multilateral conventions related to forests
ConventionAdoption
(dd/mm/year)
Entry into force
(dd/mm/year)
Number of partiesWeb site
Most important in terms of forests
Climate Change Convention09/05/199221/03/1994186 (01/05/01)www.unfccc.org
Convention on Biological Diversity05/06/199229/12/1993180 (21/06/01)www.biodiv.org
Desertification Convention17/06/199426/12/1996174 (15/06/01)www.unccd.int
Other conventions of relevance (in chronological order of adoption)
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands02/02/197121/12/1975124 (12/08/01)www.ramsar.org
World Heritage Convention16/11/197217/12/1975164 (15/05/01)www.unesco.org/whc
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species03/03/197301/07/1975154 (08/05/01)www.cites.org
Ozone Layer Convention22/03/198522/09/1988177 (15/06/01)www.unep.org/ozone
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples
Convention
27/06/198905/09/199114 (01/05/01)www.ilo.org;
ilolex.ilo.ch:1567/
scripts/convde.pl?C169
International Tropical Timber Agreement26/01/199401/01/199756 (01/05/01)www.itto.or.jp
World Trade Organization15/04/199401/01/1995141 (31/05/01)www.wto.org

In addition to the text of the conventions, developments since their adoption – such as additional protocols or decisions and resolutions of the respective Conferences of the Parties (COPs) – are also mentioned.


An assessment of approaches for wider recognition and spread of sustainable forest management by local communities

This report explores the point of view of ‘unseen foresters’ – the forest managers among the 1.3 billion forest-dependent people who live in forests as Indigenous Peoples or local communities (IPLCs) who, if better recognized, could spread their forest management systems for local and global benefit. Good evidence suggests that when granted local control, IPLCs generally protect forests better than industrial-scale companies do, and even better than many protected areas have. The report presents our analysis of approaches that could help achieve wider recognition and spread of sustainable forest management by IPLCs. 

Laporan ini mengeksplorasi sudut pandang ‘penebang hutan yang tidak terlihat’ – pengelola hutan di antara 1,3 miliar orang yang bergantung pada hutan yang tinggal di hutan sebagai Masyarakat Adat atau masyarakat lokal (IPLC) yang, jika dikenali dengan lebih baik, dapat menyebarkan sistem pengelolaan hutan mereka untuk manfaat lokal dan global. Bukti yang baik menunjukkan bahwa ketika diberikan kontrol lokal, IPLC umumnya melindungi hutan lebih baik daripada perusahaan skala industri, dan bahkan lebih baik daripada yang dimiliki banyak kawasan lindung. Laporan ini menyajikan analisis kami tentang pendekatan yang dapat membantu mencapai pengakuan yang lebih luas dan penyebaran pengelolaan hutan lestari oleh IPLC.

Characteristic of SFM 

FORESTS CAN PROVIDE numerous benefits to society today, tomorrow, and far into the future. Many in society seek sustainable forest management to ensure that future generations enjoy those benefits. The foundation of professional forest management is “the use of the natural resources for the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time” (Gifford Pinchot1947). Adherents to these concepts recognize that although it may never be possible to claim that sustainable forestry has been fully achieved, constantly striving for it in the face of changing conditions is a worthwhile pursuit. More >>>

HUTAN DAPAT MEMBERIKAN banyak manfaat bagi masyarakat saat ini, besok, dan jauh di masa depan. Banyak masyarakat mencari pengelolaan hutan lestari untuk memastikan bahwa generasi mendatang menikmati manfaat tersebut. Landasan pengelolaan hutan yang profesional adalah “penggunaan sumber daya alam untuk kebaikan terbesar dari jumlah terbesar untuk waktu yang lama” (Gifford Pinchot 1947). Penganut konsep-konsep ini mengakui bahwa meskipun tidak mungkin untuk mengklaim bahwa kehutanan berkelanjutan telah tercapai sepenuhnya, terus-menerus berjuang untuk itu dalam menghadapi perubahan kondisi adalah pengejaran yang berharga. Selengkapnya >>>

Australia Standard of SFM

Sustainable Forest Management certification provides assurances that forests are conserved and managed responsibly to ensure they deliver social, environmental, and economic benefits now and in the future – balancing people, planet, and profit

Sertifikasi Pengelolaan Hutan Berkelanjutan memberikan jaminan bahwa hutan dilestarikan dan dikelola secara bertanggung jawab untuk memastikan mereka memberikan manfaat sosial, lingkungan dan ekonomi sekarang dan di masa depan – menyeimbangkan manusia, planet dan keuntungan

The Australian Standard for Sustainable Forest Management defines sustainable forest management according to a set of nine criteria which are:

1. Systematic Management

Forest management shall be undertaken in a systematic manner appropriate to the nature and scale of the enterprise and provide for continual improvement.

2. Stakeholder Engagement

Forest management shall demonstrate proactive stakeholder engagement.

3. Biodiversity

Forest management shall maintain or enhance biodiversity.

4. Forest Productive Capacity

Forest management shall maintain the productive capacity of forests and land.

5. Forest Ecosystem Health

Forest management shall maintain forest ecosystem health and vitality.

6. Soil and Water Resources

Forest management shall protect soil and water resources

7. Forest Carbon

Forest management shall maintain or enhance forests’ contribution to the carbon cycle

8. Cultural Values

Forest management shall protect and maintain, for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, their natural, cultural, social, recreational, religious and spiritual heritage values.

9. Social and Economic Benefits

Forest management shall maintain and enhance long-term social and economic benefits.

Certified forest managers have demonstrated their commitment to sustainability. They have devoted substantial effort to  ensuring that their forest management meets the requirements of the Australian Standard® for Sustainable Forest Management, and they have been independently audited by an accredited certification body.