Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services: Reconciling Values of Humans and Nature in Sustainable Development

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Meine van Noordwijk 1,2,3

1World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16155, Indonesia2 Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands3Study Group Agroforestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia Academic Editor: Daniel S. Mendham Land202110(7), 699;

Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 2 July 2021 (This article belongs to the Special Issue 

Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
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Agroforestry as active area of multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary research aims to bridge several artificial divides that have respectable historical roots but hinder progress toward sustainable development goals. These include: (1) The segregation of “forestry trees” and “agricultural crops”, ignoring the continuity in functional properties and functions; the farm-scale “Agroforestry-1” concept seeks to reconnect perennial and annual, woody and nonwoody plants across the forest–agriculture divide to markets for inputs and outputs. (2) The identification of agriculture with provisioning services and the assumed monopoly of forests on other ecosystem services (including hydrology, carbon storage, biodiversity conservation) in the landscape, challenged by the opportunity of “integrated” solutions at landscape scale as the “Agroforestry-2” concept explores. (3) The gaps among local knowledge of farmers/agroforesters as landscape managers, the contributions of social and ecological sciences, the path-dependency of forestry, environmental or agricultural institutions, and emerging policy responses to “issue attention cycles” in the public debate, as is the focus of the “Agroforestry-3” concept. Progress in understanding social–ecological–economic systems at the practitioners–science–policy interface requires that both instrumental and relational values of nature are appreciated, as they complement critical steps in progressing issue cycles at the three scales. A set of hypotheses can guide further research. View Full-TextKeywords: coinvestmentinstrumental valueslandscaperelational valuesrestorationsocial–ecological systemsstewardshipsustainable development goals (SDGs)treeswater▼ Show Figures

Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

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